An enhanced online learning environment in the time of COVID-19
Abstract: The coronavirus has resulted in educational and universities shut all across the globe. There are over 1.2 billion students in 191 countries are out of the educational institutions all over the world. The world is now transforming training, learning, and work online to achieve the safety of workers, students, and educators, reduce total fatalities from the disease, and flatten the infection curve. To make the shifting to online learning easy, manageable, secure, and effective, this paper analyzes the challenges of the current learning environment and proposes architecture to solve these challenges. The learning environments face challenges in securing their private data, tracking student's behavior, the low quality of the learning process, and centralized authority. Educational institutions need to develop efficient, effective, transparent, immutable, and secure learning environments. A detailed study, which introduces research papers, which apply blockchain within the learning process, is discussed. Most of these studies focus on improving the learning process by using blockchain technology ignored other important technologies like the semantic web. The integration of the semantic web with blockchain will create a semantic blockchain. The Sematic blockchain will help educational institutions to enhance their learning process in transit and storage, improving student satisfaction and trust through transparency in a decentralized manner. It is considered a key technology of the next generation of e-learning systems. In this paper, the proposed model for improving the learning process based on a semantic blockchain is introduced.
Favale, T., Soro, F., Trevisan, M., Drago, I., & Mellia, M. (2020). Campus Traffic and e-Learning during COVID-19 Pandemic. Computer Networks, 107290.
Chiodini, J. (2020). Online learning in the time of COVID-19. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease.
Widianto, A. A., Purwasih, J. H. G., & Perguna, L. A. (2020). Promoting Social Cohesion: The Development of E-Learning Management System Materials through Life Based Learning for Sociology of Religion Course. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 15(07), 162-170.
Tapscott, D. and A. Kaplan (2019). "Blockchain Revolution In Education And Lifelong Learning.". BLOCKCHAIN RESEARCH INSTITUTE - IBM INSTITUTE FOR BUSINESS VALUE.
Zheng, Z., et al. (2018). "Blockchain challenges and opportunities: A survey." International Journal of Web and Grid Services 14(4): 352-375.
Rezgui, K., et al. (2018). "Towards a common and semantic representation of e-portfolios." Data Technologies and Applications 52(4): 520-538.
Hori, M., et al. (2018). Learning System based on Decentralized Learning Model using Blockchain and SNS. CSEDU (1).
Mikroyannidis, A., et al. (2018). A Learner-Centred Approach for Lifelong Learning Powered by the Blockchain. EdMedia+ Innovate Learning, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
Sharples, M., & Domingue, J. (2016, September). The blockchain and kudos: A distributed system for educational record, reputation and reward. In European conference on technology enhanced learning (pp. 490-496). Springer, Cham.
Bdiwi, R., et al. (2017). Towards a new ubiquitous learning environment based on Blockchain technology. IEEE 17th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), IEEE.
Duan, B., et al. (2017). Education application of blockchain technology: Learning outcome and meta-diploma. IEEE 23rd International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS), IEEE.
Turkanović, M., et al. (2018). "EduCTX: A blockchain-based higher education credit platform." IEEE access 6: 5112-5127.
Wu, B. and Y. Li (2018). Design of Evaluation System for Digital Education Operational Skill Competition Based on Blockchain. IEEE 15th International Conference on e-Business Engineering (ICEBE), IEEE.
Bdiwi, R., et al. (2019). Blockchain-Based Platform for Smart Learning Environments. International Conference on Business Information Systems, Springer.
Guo, J., et al. (2019). "Blockchain-enabled digital rights management for multimedia resources of online education." Multimedia Tools and Applications: 1-21.
Hericko, M. A (2019). Preliminary Review of Blockchain-Based Solutions in Higher Education. Learning Technology for Education Challenges: 8th International Workshop, LTEC, Zamora, Spain, July 15–18, 2019, Proceedings, Springer.
Yumna, H., et al. (2019). Use of Blockchain in Education: A Systematic Literature Review. Asian Conference on Intelligent Information and Database Systems, Springer.
Al Harthy, K., et al. (2019). The upcoming Blockchain adoption in Higher-education: requirements and process. 4th MEC International Conference on Big Data and Smart City (ICBDSC), IEEE.
Bdiwi, R., et al. (2018). A Blockchain Based Decentralized Platform for Ubiquitous Learning Environment. IEEE 18th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), IEEE.
Gong, X., et al. (2018). Parallel-Education-Blockchain Driven Smart Education: Challenges and Issues. Chinese Automation Congress (CAC), IEEE.
Liu, Q., et al. (2018). Education-Industry Cooperative System Based on Blockchain. 1st IEEE International Conference on Hot Information-Centric Networking (HotICN), IEEE.
Srivastava, A., et al. (2018). A Distributed Credit Transfer Educational Framework based on Blockchain. Second International Conference on Advances in Computing, Control and Communication Technology (IAC3T), IEEE.
Mikroyannidis, A., et al. (2018). Smart Blockchain Badges for Data Science Education. IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), IEEE.
Juričić, V., et al. (2019). Creating student’s profile using blockchain technology. 2019 42nd International Convention
on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO), IEEE.
Daoudi, N., Nabigh, M., Hilal, I., Rahimi, H., & Atiki, F. Z. (2020). Organizational Intelligence: Ontological Modeling of Skills. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC), 13(1), 4-18.
Assami, S., Daoudi, N., & Ajhoun, R. (2020). A Semantic Recommendation System for Learning Personalization in Massive Open Online Courses. International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT (iJES), 8(1), 71-80
Palma, L. M., et al. (2019). "Blockchain and smart contracts for higher education registry in Brazil." International Journal of Network Management 29(3): e2061.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.