Collaborative Strategy for Teaching and Learning Object-Oriented Programming course: A Case Study at Mostafa Stambouli Mascara University, Algeria

Cherifa Boudia, Asmaa Bengueddach, Hafid Haffaf


Several strategies and methods have been designed and tested to allow students to have better teaching and learning of programming concepts and training their programming skills acquired. In our university, old and classic pedagogical methods are still used in the learning of Oriented-Object Programming (OOP). This paper explores the experimentation of a pedagogical approach designed for Mostafa Stambouli Mascara University’s computer sciences students to enhance their chances to get an effective teaching using a collaborative learning and early introduction of current technologies. The study was made of 108 second year informatics students’ for two semesters (October–January 2016-2017, September-December 2017-2018) who were identified in a controlled experience for collaborative learning OOP in lab session. Students gathered into predetermined groups based on initial test and some settings. The students are supposed to share the same programming assignment by distributing roles according to global pedagogical scenario for problem-resolving activities. This experience allows the teachers to apply this strategy and see students in closer and permit them to express their problems and search together for solutions. The principal objective was to offer a new experience to motivate students and make this design a smart opportunity to have better programming performance. Furthermore, as a result of testing this new strategy, the students’ academic progress is clear. A questionnaire was distributed with the purpose of analyzing students’ motivation and satisfaction levels alongside the effects of the experiment. Results show that students found that among other benefits this method facilitates the learning process.

Full Text:



J. Carter, P. Dewan, and M. Pichiliani, “Towards Incremental Separation of Surmountable and Insurmountable Programming Difficulties,” in Proceedings of the 46th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, New York, NY, USA, 2015, pp. 241–246.

D. Sleeman, “The Challenges of Teaching Computer Programming,” Commun. ACM, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 840–841, Sep. 1986.

P. H. Tan, C. Y. Ting, and S. W. Ling, “Learning Difficulties in Programming Courses: Undergraduates’ Perspective and Perception,” in 2009 International Conference on Computer Technology and Development, 2009, vol. 1, pp. 42–46.

H. Belhandouz, “Teaching science in Algeria: pedagogical shortfalls and conflicts of meaning,” The Journal of North African Studies, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 99–116, Mar. 2011.

A. V. P. Arboleda, L. R. R. Mazuera, and G. S. Montemiranda, “Competences that facilitate the achievement of the objectives of an introductory programming course,” in 2015 International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL), 2015, pp. 1007–1012.

A. Robins, J. Rountree, and N. Rountree, “Learning and Teaching Programming: A Review and Discussion,” Computer Science Education, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 137–172, Jun. 2003.

C. Baron and L. Baron, “Trois approches d’apprentissage collaboratif dans l’action pour soutenir le développement du leadership,” Humain et organisation, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 24–32, Nov. 2015.

G. Alexandron, M. Armoni, M. Gordon, and D. Harel, “Scenario-based Programming: Reducing the Cognitive Load, Fostering Abstract Thinking,” in Companion Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Software Engineering, New York, NY, USA, 2014, pp. 311–320.

B. Isong, “A Methodology for Teaching Computer Programming: first year students’ perspective,” International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science(IJMECS), vol. 6, no. 9, p. 15, Sep. 2014.

M. Hauswirth and A. Adamoli, “Teaching Java programming with the Informa clicker system,” Science of Computer Programming, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 499–520, May 2013.

G. Fesakis and K. Serafeim, “Influence of the Familiarization with ‘Scratch’ on Future Teachers’ Opinions and Attitudes About Programming and ICT in Education,” in Proceedings of the 14th Annual ACM SIGCSE Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, New York, NY, USA, 2009, pp. 258–262.

S. Mishra and S. Iyer, “Problem Posing Exercises (PPE): An Instructional Strategy for Learning of Complex Material in Introductory Programming Courses,” in 2013 IEEE Fifth International Conference on Technology for Education (t4e 2013), 2013, pp. 151–158.

A. Abdullah and T. Y. Yih, “Implementing Learning Contracts in a Computer Science Course as a Tool to Develop and Sustain Student Motivation to Learn,” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 123, pp. 256–265, Mar. 2014.

J. M. Rodríguez Corral, A. Civit Balcells, A. Morgado Estévez, G. Jiménez Moreno, and M. J. Ferreiro Ramos, “A game-based approach to the teaching of object-oriented programming languages,” Computers & Education, vol. 73, pp. 83–92, Apr. 2014.

H. Cigdem, “How Does Self-Regulation Affect Computer-Programming Achievement in a Blended Context?,” Contemporary Educational Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 19–37, Mar. 2015.

C.-H. Chen, K.-C. Wang, and Y.-H. Lin, “The Comparison of Solitary and Collaborative Modes of Game-based Learning on Students’ Science Learning and Motivation.,” Educational Technology & Society, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 237–248, 2015.

M. Maleko, D. Nandi, M. Hamilton, D. D’Souza, and J. Harland, “Facebook versus Blackboard for Supporting the Learning of Programming in a Fully Online Course: The Changing Face of Computing Education,” in 2013 Learning and Teaching in Computing and Engineering, 2013, pp. 83–89.

C. Z. Kertész, “Using GitHub in the classroom - a collaborative learning experience,” in 2015 IEEE 21st International Symposium for Design and Technology in Electronic Packaging (SIITME), 2015, pp. 381–386.

T. Kasame, K. Pachoen, and A. Manit, “The use of engineering design concept for computer programming course: A model of blended learning environment,” Educational Research and Reviews, vol. 11, no. 18, pp. 1757–1765, Sep. 2016.

G. Ion, A. Barrera-Corominas, and M. Tomàs-Folch, “Written peer-feedback to enhance students’ current and future learning,” International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, vol. 13, no. 1, Dec. 2016.

A. Othman, A. Impes, C. Pislaru, and D. Wilson, “Virtual Lab for Teaching a Computer Programming Course,” Online Journal of Art and Design, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 42–54, 2014.

G. Álvarez and L. Bassa, “ICTs and collaborative learning: a case study of a class blog for improving the writing skills of pre-university students,” RUSC. Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 5, Jul. 2013.

J. Owolabi, O. A. Adedayo, A. O. Amao-Kehinde, and T. A. Olayanju, “Effects of Solo and Pair Programming Instructional Strategies on Students’ Academic Achievement in Visual-Basic.Net Computer Programming Language,” GSTF Journal on Computing (JoC), vol. 3, no. 3, Aug. 2014.

A.-B. Al-Azawei, “Evaluating the Effect of Arabic Engineering Students’ Learning Styles in Blended Programming Courses,” Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, vol. 15, pp. 109–130, 2016.

B. Estácio et al., “Evaluating Collaborative Practices in Acquiring Programming Skills: Findings of a Controlled Experiment,” in 2015 29th Brazilian Symposium on Software Engineering, 2015, pp. 150–159.

S. Hamid, J. Waycott, S. Kurnia, and S. Chang, “Understanding students’ perceptions of the benefits of online social networking use for teaching and learning,” The Internet and Higher Education, vol. 26, pp. 1–9, 2015.

S. M. Alyami and A. M. Alagab, “The Difference in Learning Strategies in Virtual Learning Environment and Their Effect on Academic Achievement and Learning Satisfaction for Distance Teaching & Training Program Students,” in 2013 Fourth International Conference on e-Learning “Best Practices in Management, Design and Development of e-Courses: Standards of Excellence and Creativity,” 2013, pp. 102–112.

A. Azemi, M. Bodek, and G. Chinn, “Teaching an introductory programming course using hybrid e-learning approach,” in 2013 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), 2013, pp. 1911–1913.

M. E. Muuro, R. O. Oboko, and P. W. Wagacha, “Evaluation of Intelligent Grouping Based on Learners’ Collaboration Competence Level in Online Collaborative Learning Environment,” The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, vol. 17, no. 2, Mar. 2016.

J. Dwarika and M. R. R. de Villiers, “Use of the Alice Visual Environment in Teaching and Learning Object-oriented Programming,” in Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Research Conference on South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists, New York, NY, USA, 2015, pp. 14:1–14:10.

Y. Hayashi, K. I. Fukamachi, and H. Komatsugawa, “Collaborative Learning in Computer Programming Courses That Adopted the Flipped Classroom,” in 2015 International Conference on Learning and Teaching in Computing and Engineering, 2015, pp. 209–212.

N. Funabiki, Y. Korenaga, Y. Matsushima, T. Nakanishi, and K. Watanabe, “An Online Fill-in-the-Blank Problem Function for Learning Reserved Words in Java Programming Education,” in 2012 26th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, 2012, pp. 375–380.

H. Jonsson, “Using flipped classroom, peer discussion, and just-in-time teaching to increase learning in a programming course,” in 2015 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), 2015, pp. 1–9.

M. Husain, N. Tarannum, and N. Patil, “Teaching programming course elective: A new teaching and learning experience,” in 2013 IEEE International Conference in MOOC, Innovation and Technology in Education (MITE), 2013, pp. 275–279.

F. Silvestre, P. Vidal, and J. Broisin, “Tsaap-Notes – An Open Micro-blogging Tool for Collaborative Notetaking during Face-to-Face Lectures,” in 2014 IEEE 14th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, 2014, pp. 39–43.

S. L. Wismath and D. Orr, “Collaborative Learning in Problem Solving: A Case Study in Metacognitive Learning,” Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, vol. 6, no. 3, 2015.

J. Olivier, “Blended learning in a first-year language class: Evaluating the acceptance of an interactive learning environment,” ResearchGate, vol. 37, no. 2, Oct. 2016.

M.-I. Dascalu, C.-N. Bodea, A. Moldoveanu, A. Mohora, M. Lytras, and P. O. de Pablos, “A recommender agent based on learning styles for better virtual collaborative learning experiences,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 45, pp. 243–253, Apr. 2015.

G. Temperman, B. De Lièvre, P. Bossaert, and J. De Stercke, “Effets de la distribution de rôles selon le style d’apprentissage dans un environnement collaboratif à distance,” in TICE 2010, Nancy, France, 2010, p. 6.

J. Andriessen, M. Baker, and D. Suthers, Eds., Arguing to Learn: Confronting Cognitions in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environments. Springer Netherlands, 2003.

A. Zagalsky, J. Feliciano, M.-A. Storey, Y. Zhao, and W. Wang, “The Emergence of GitHub As a Collaborative Platform for Education,” in Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing, New York, NY, USA, 2015, pp. 1906–1917.

F. J. Rodríguez, K. M. Price, and K. E. Boyer, “Exploring the Pair Programming Process: Characteristics of Effective Collaboration,” in Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, New York, NY, USA, 2017, pp. 507–512.

P. Dillenbourg, Over-scripting CSCL: The risks of blending collaborative learning with instructional design. Heerlen, Open Universiteit Nederland, 2002.

C. Armstrong, “Catalyzing Collaborative Learning: How Automated Task Distribution May Prompt Students to Collaborate,” E-Learning and Digital Media, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 407–415, Dec. 2010.

K. Prahl, “Best Practices for the Think-Pair-Share Active-Learning Technique,” The American Biology Teacher, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 3–8, Dec. 2016.

I. N. Umar and T. H. Hui, “Learning Style, Metaphor and Pair Programming: Do they Influence Performance?,” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 46, pp. 5603–5609, 2012.

S. Gross and N. Pinkwart, “Towards an Integrative Learning Environment for Java Programming,” in 2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, 2015, pp. 24–28.

B. J. Parra, “Learning strategies and styles as a basis for building personal learning environments,” International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, vol. 13, no. 1, Dec. 2016.

G.-H. Hwang, B. Chen, and C.-W. Huang, “Development and Effectiveness Analysis of a Personalized Ubiquitous Multi-Device Certification Tutoring System Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives,” Journal of Educational Technology & Society, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 223–236, 2016.

A. H. Seyal, Y. S. Mey, M. H. Matusin, N. H. Siau, and A. A. Rahman, “Understanding Students Learning Style and Their Performance in Computer Programming Course: Evidence from Bruneian Technical Institution of Higher Learning,” International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, vol. 7, no. 3, p. 241, 2015.

C. Ferraris, A. Lejeune, L. Vignollet, and J.-P. David, “Modélisation de scénarios pédagogiques collaboratifs.” 28-Jun-2005.

G. Paquette, F. Crevier, C. Aubin, J. Rocheleau, C. Paquin, and M. Léonard, “Méthode d’ingénierie d’un système d’apprentissage,” Revue Informations In Cognito, vol. 8, p. 1997, 1997.

C. Yáñez-Aldecoa, A. Okada, and R. Palau, “New learning scenarios for the 21st century related to Education, Culture and Technology,” RUSC. Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, vol. 12, no. 2, p. 87, Apr. 2015.

J.-P. Pernin and A. Lejeune, “Dispositifs d’apprentissage instrumentés par les technologies : vers une ingénierie centrée sur les scénarios,” presented at the Technologies de l’Information et de la Connaissance dans l’Enseignement Supérieur et de l’Industrie, 2004, pp. 407–414.

W. Debabi and T. Bensebaa, “Using serious game to enhance learning and teaching algorithmic,” Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, vol. 12, no. 2, 2016.

N. Mamat and N. Yusof, “Learning Style in a Personalized Collaborative Learning Framework,” ResearchGate, vol. 103, pp. 586–594, Nov. 2013.

A. R. Pacios Lozano and G. Bueno de la Fuente, “Teamwork and leadership in a virtual learning environment,” RUSC. Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, vol. 10, no. 2, p. 112, Jul. 2013.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.