AI for Improving Justice Delivery: International Scenario, Potential Applications & Way Forward for India

Sunil Kumar Srivastava


Judiciary in India has been under tremendous pressure due to large number of cases pending at various levels. From time to time, several initiatives have been taken to reduce the backlog of pending cases in the courts. One of these is leveraging information and communication technology (ICT). Under this initiative (called e-Court), ICT solutions have been developed and deployed. This has led to visible improvement in the productivity. Even during the Covid-19 pandemic, the courts in India have been functioning. However, the number of pending cases has still been growing due to various reasons including increase in economic activities, awareness in the public and ease of access to the courts. The present work explores the possibility of using artificial intelligence (AI) in the processes to improve the justice delivery in India. A comprehensive literature survey was conducted to review the applications developed and deployed in this domain in other countries viz. Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, UK, and USA. Based on this, it identifies the gaps and suggests a spectrum of potential applications possible in Indian context. The article suggests a way forward for facilitating development and deployment of AI applications in this domain in India.

Full Text:



B.S. Haney, “Applied Natural Language Processing for Law Practice”, Intellectual Prop. & Tech. F, 2020. Available:

A.D. Reiling, “Court and Artificial Intelligence”, International Journal for Court Administration, 11(2), 2020.

B. Verheij. Artificial Intelligence as law. Artificial Intelligence and Law, 28(2), 2020.

National Judicial Data Grid. Available:

M.B. Lokur, “What Is Stopping Our Justice System From Tackling the Cases Pending Before Courts?” The Wire, May 12, 2021. Available:

D. Mahadik, “Analysis of Causes for Pendency in High Courts and Subordinate Courts in Maharashtra”, Report prepared by Administrative Staff College of India, 2018.

National Mission on Delivery of Justice and Legal Reforms. Available:

P. Jain, “Artificial Intelligence for sustainable and effective justice delivery in India”, OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 11(6), 2018.

A. Stranieri and J. Zeleznikow, “Split Up: An intelligent Decision support System which provides Advice Upon Property Division Following divorce”, International Journal of Law and Information Technology, 6(2), 1998.

A. Chanthadavong, “Federal government thinks AI for separating couples is a good idea”, ZDNet, 2021. Available:

R. Crozier, “Fed Court turns to AI to predict asset split after relationship breakdown”, iTnews, 2019. Available:

D. Cronshaw, “How artificial intelligence is being used for divorce and separations with apps like Amica, Adieu and Penda”, Newcastle Herald, 2019. Available: [13] J. Talevski, “Carrington Associates engages Federal Court of Australia with AI concept”, ARN, May 23, 2019. Available: n-associates-engages-federal-court-australia-aiconcept/

JIRS. Available:

Luz de Araujo, VICTOR: A dataset for Brazilian legal documents classification. Proceedings of 12th Conference on Languages Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2020), Marseille, May 2020. [16] F.M. De Sanctis. Artificial Intelligence and Innovation in Brazilian Justice. International Annals of Criminology, 2021. Available:

Artificial Intelligence: Technology Applied to Conflict Resolution in Brazilian Judiciary. Research Report, Centre of Innovation, Administration, and Legal Research, Getulio Vargas Foundation, 2021. Available:

J. Macfarlane, “The National Self-Represented Litigants Project: Identifying and Meeting the Needs of Self-Represented Litigants”, 2013. Available:

D. Liang, “Conflict Analytics Lab opens its AI legal aid system to small businesses”, 2020. Available:

T. Vasdani, “From Estonian AI judges to robot mediators in Canada, UK”, The Lawyer’s Daily, 2019. Available at

S. Azam, “Artificial Intelligence, “AI Justice Challenge” and the Future of Law”, BarTalk, 2019. Available: ust/Features/Artificial-Intelligence-the-AI-JusticeChallenge

R. Fyfe, “AI and the Future of Law”, BarTalk, 2019. Available: ust/Features/AI-and-the-Future-of-Law

DoNotPay System.

J. Deng, “Should the Common Law System Welcome Artificial Intelligence: A Case study of China’s Same-Type Case Reference System”, Georgetown Law and Technology Review, 3(2), Pages: 223-280, 2019.

B.M. Chen and Z. Li, “How will technology change the face of Chinese justice”, Columbian Journal of Asian Law, 34(1), 2020.

Y. Shenggao, “AI-assisted sentencing speeds up cases in judicial system”, China Daily, 2019. Available: 04/18/content_37459601.htm

C. Jones, “The government’s approach to algorithmic decision-making is broken: here’s how to fix it”, NS-Tech, 2020. Available:

T. Scantamburlo et al, “Machine Decisions and Human Consequences”, In Algorithmic Regulation by K. Yeung and M. Lodge, Oxford University Press, 2019.

M. Oswald M et al, “Algorithmic risk assessment policing models: Lessons from the Durham Constabulary HART model”, Information and Communications Technology Law, 27(2): 223-250, 2018.

C. Coglianese and L.B. Dor, “Artificial Intelligence in Adjudication and Administration: A Status Report on Governmental Use of Technology in the United States”, Project Report, University of Pennsylvania Law School, 2019.

N. James, “Risk and Needs Assessment in the Criminal Justice System”, Report by Congressional Research Service, 2015. 87

AI and Human Rights: Criminal Justice Systems. Electronic Privacy Information Centre. Available:

Arnold Ventures. Available:

T. Howell, “LSI-R, LS/RNR and LS/CMI Documentation”, Public Safety Division, MultiHealth Systems, Inc, 2021.

E. Jackson and C. Mendoza, “Setting the Record Straight: What the COMPAS Core Risk and Need Assessment Is and Is Not”, Harvard Data Science Review, 2(1), 2020.

L. Millan, “Université de Montréal AI Initiative seeks to improve access to justice”, The Lawyer’s Daily, 2020. Available:

L. Kugler, “AI Judges and Juries”, Communications of the ACM, 61(12), 2018.

K. Atkinson, “AI can spur real change in the legal sector”, NewStatesman, September 03, 2020. Available:

The Stanford Centre for Legal Informatics. Available:

S. Polsley S et al, “CaseSummarizer: A System for Automated Summarization of Legal Texts”, Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Osaka, Japan, 2016.

Algorithmic Justice League Project. Available:

G. Christian, “Artificial Intelligence, Algorithmic Racism and the Canadian Criminal Justice System”, law – Canada’s Online Legal Magazine, 2020. Available:

B. Cilevics, “Justice by algorithm – the role of artificial intelligence in policing and criminal justice systems”, Report of Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights, Council of Europe, 2020.

Z. Lin et al, “The limits of human predictions of recidivism”, Science Advances, 6(7). American Association for the Advancement of Sciences, 2020.

Partnership on AI, “Algorithmic Risk Assessment Tools in the U.S. Criminal Justice System”, Report, 2020. Available:

European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice, “European Ethical Charter on the Use of artificial Intelligence in Judicial systems and their environment”, 2018. Available:

IEEE, Ethically Aligned Design (EAD): A Vision for Prioritizing Human Wellbeing with Autonomous and Intelligent Systems, 2019. Available: ed&utm_term=undefined

Supreme Court of India, “Supreme Court Vidhik Anuvaad Software”, Press Release, September 25, 2019. Available: 20for%20law%20day%20celebratoin.pdf

S. Shekhar, “Supreme Court embraces Artificial Intelligence, CJI Bobde says won't let AI spill over to decision-making”, India Today, April 7, 2021. Available:

Stanford Question Answering Dataset. Available:

A. Kanapala et al, “Text Summarization from Legal Documents: A Survey”, Artificial Intelligence Review, 51(1), 2019.

P. Bhattacharya et al, “A Comparative Study of Summarization Algorithms Applied to Legal Case Judgments”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 11437, Springer, 2019.

K.D. Ashley, “Modeling Legal Argument – Reasoning with Cases and Hypothetical”, PhD Thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 1988.

S.K. Srivastava, “Some Investigations in Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Legal Domain”, PhD Thesis, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, 1997.

CJI Calls For Law To Prescribe Mediation As Mandatory First Step For Dispute Resolution

G. Ramesh et al, “Samanantar: The Largest Publicly Available Parallel Corpora Collection for 11 Indic Languages”, 2021. arXiv preprint arXiv:2104.05596.

A. Singh et al, “ASRoIL: a comprehensive survey for automatic speech recognition of Indian languages”, Artificial Intelligence Review, Vol. 53, pp. 3673 –3704, 2020.

S.P. Panda et al, “A survey on speech synthesis techniques in Indian languages”, Multimedia Systems, Vol 26, pp. 453 –478, 2020.

Report of Law Commission of India. Available:

Supreme Court Audio Recording and Transcription Services. Available:

S.K. Srivastava, “Artificial Intelligence: Way Forward for India”, IAES International Journal of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 19 -32, March 2018.

A. Jauhar et al, “Responsible Artificial Intelligence for the Indian Justice System: A Strategy Paper”, Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy, New Delhi, April 2021.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.